Schools & School Districts
A Look at Trends in Schools & School Districts
After increasing by at least 1 percent per year from 1996 to 2008, when the United States began to feel the impact of the recession, per-pupil spending at the K-12 level began to decline in 2011, and continued to fall in 2012, the last year for which data are available.
There is no doubt that schools and school districts have felt the budget crunch, and many have been forced to cut programs as a result. Unfortunately, the programs most typically on the chopping block are related to athletics, arts and recreation, as more dollars must be funneled toward instructional measures.
The State of the Industry Report has reflected this crunch for the past several years, with respondents from schools and school districts more likely than any other respondents to report falling revenues, as well as other challenges.
In this section, we'll take a look at the current state of affairs for schools and school districts.
Schools respondents were much more likely to be from the Midwest than from any other region. Some 39.5 percent of schools respondents reported that they were located in the Midwest. They were followed by the South Central region (18.1 percent), the Northeast (17.2 percent), the West (14.4 percent) and the South Atlantic (10.7 percent).
Schools respondents were much more likely to report from rural communities than urban or suburban areas. Nearly half (49.3 percent) of schools respondents were in rural communities, compared with just 32.2 percent of non-schools respondents. On the other hand, while 16.3 percent of schools were in urban communities, 24.7 percent of non-schools respondents were in urban areas. And, while 34.4 percent of schools respondents were in the suburbs, 43.1 percent of non-schools respondents reported from suburban communities.
As in past surveys, the vast majority of schools respondents are from public schools. Some 89.8 percent of schools respondents said they worked for public organizations. Another 7.9 percent said they were with private nonprofit organizations, and 2.3 percent were with private, for-profit organizations.
Schools respondents manage an average of 7.6 facilities, an increase from 2014, when the average was 6.9. Schools are slightly more likely than non-schools to report that they manage 10 or more facilities. While 19 percent of schools respondents said they manage 10 or more facilities, 17.1 percent of non-schools respondents manage 10 or more.
Schools respondents were more likely than non-schools respondents to report that they had partnered with other organizations. While 85.2 percent of non-schools respondents had formed such partnerships, 89.7 percent of schools respondents had done so. The most common partners for schools and school districts included: local schools (66.7 percent of schools respondents partnered with them); local government (51.2 percent); state government (50.2 percent); nonprofit organizations (31.5 percent); and federal government (26.8 percent).
More than half of schools respondents (53 percent) said that the primary audience served by their facilities was made up of teenagers ages 13 to 18. This compares with just 4.3 percent of non-schools respondents who primarily reach teens. Another 27 percent of schools respondents said their primary audience was all ages, and 12.6 percent said their primary audience was children ages 4 to 12.
Revenues & Expenditures
Again schools were the least likely to report that their revenues had increased in the years covered by the survey, although the percentage reporting an increase in revenues did grow slightly from 2013 to 2014. While 15.8 percent of respondents in 2014 said revenues had grown from 2012 to 2013, 17.5 percent of respondents this year report an increase in revenues from 2013 to 2014. Looking forward, similar numbers expect further revenue increases over the next two years. (See Figure 48.) At the same time, though, 15.5 percent of schools respondents reported that revenues decreased from 2013 to 2014, and 21.8 percent expect a decrease in 2015. More than six in 10 expect revenues to remain stable over the next couple of years.
After falling 19.1 percent from fiscal 2012 to fiscal 2013, schools respondents reported an increase to their average operating budgets of 39.1 in 2014, from $1,229,000 to $1,710,000. From fiscal 2012 to fiscal 2014, this represents a 12.6 percent increase. Looking forward, schools respondents project a more modest increase of 1.5 percent between fiscal 2014 and fiscal 2016, to an average annual operating expenditure of $1,735,000.
Schools respondents were more likely in 2015 to report that they had taken actions to reduce their expenditures. Some 80.4 percent of schools respondents said they had done so, compared with 74.7 percent in 2014. That said, they were slightly less likely than non-schools respondents to have taken such actions. Some 84.6 percent of non-schools respondents had acted to reduce their expenditures. The most common measures taken by schools respondents to reduce their expenditures included: improving energy efficiency (53.6 percent); reducing staff (32.1 percent); putting construction or renovation plans on hold (22 percent); cutting programs and services (17.2 percent); and increasing fees (16.3 percent).
As is usually the case, schools respondents were generally more likely to report stable numbers of people using their facilities. More than half (52.8 percent) said that the number of people using their facilities had remained the same from 2013 to 2014, well down from the 65.6 percent who reported no change from 2012 to 2013. Looking forward, slightly more than half continue to expect stable numbers of users in 2015 (52.4 percent) and 2016 (53.4 percent). (See Figure 49.) Some 45.7 percent of schools respondents said the number of people using their facilities increased from 2013 to 2014, and slightly fewer are expecting increases in 2015 (42 percent) and 2016 (41.8 percent).
The number of schools respondents who said they are planning new construction, additions or renovations over the next three years increased slightly from 2014 to 2015, from 52.8 percent to 46.8 percent. More schools respondents in 2015 said they have new construction plans in the works (19.4 percent vs. 18.3 percent) or additions to their existing facilities (26.4 percent vs. 25.4 percent). Slightly fewer schools respondents in 2015 are planning to renovate their existing facilities. (See Figure 50.) Some 34.7 percent of schools respondents said they had renovation plans, compared with 36.9 percent in 2014.
After reporting a 27.2 percent increase to construction budgets in 2014, schools respondents again saw their average construction spending fall in 2015. They reported an 11.5 percent decrease from an average of $6,313,000 in 2014 to $5,588,000 in 2015. Their planned spending is 38.9 percent higher than the average for all respondents of $4,024,000.
The features currently included among schools respondents' facilities have remained consistent over time. The 10 most common features currently found at their facilities include: locker rooms; bleachers and seating; indoor sports courts such as basketball and volleyball courts; natural turf sports fields such as football, soccer and baseball fields; concession areas; outdoor tracks; classrooms and meeting rooms; fitness centers; outdoor sports courts; and playgrounds.
There was a slight decrease in the percentage of schools respondents who reported that they have plans to add features at their facilities over the next three years. In 2015, 27.8 percent of schools respondents said they have such plans, down from 28.6 percent in 2014. Schools are also much less likely to have plans for adding features than non-schools respondents, 44.2 percent of whom will be adding amenities to their facilities over the next three years.
The 10 most commonly planned additions include:
- Synthetic turf sports fields (28.3 percent of those with plans to make additions)
- Bleachers and seating (28.3 percent)
- Concession areas (26.7 percent)
- Locker rooms (23.3 percent)
- Outdoor sports courts, such as basketball or tennis courts (20 percent)
- Fitness centers (16.7 percent)
- Classrooms and meeting rooms (16.7 percent)
- Natural turf sports fields (16.7 percent)
- Outdoor tracks (16.7 percent)
- Fitness trails and outdoor fitness equipment (13.3 percent)
More schools respondents in 2015 than in 2014 are planning to add: concession areas (5.9 percent more); outdoor tracks (4.2 percent more); locker rooms (3.9 percent more); fitness centers (2.8 percent more); and natural turf sports fields (2.8 percent more). Outdoor sports courts, and fitness trails and outdoor fitness equipment were not among the top 10 planned features for schools respondents in 2014. They replace indoor sports courts and playgrounds.
The programming most commonly found among schools respondents continues to be youth sports teams. Some 72.2 percent of schools respondents in 2015 reported that youth sports teams are among their program offerings, reflecting no change from 2014.
Other programs commonly found among school respondents include: educational programs (60.6 percent); fitness programs (51.4 percent); sports tournaments and races (45.8 percent); individual sports activities such as running clubs (38.4 percent); swimming (32.4 percent); sport training such as golf or tennis instruction (32.4 percent); performing arts programs (32.4 percent); special needs programs (31.9 percent); and holidays and other special events (30.1 percent).
Programs that saw growth from 2014 to 2015 include: special needs programs (up 4.2 percent); individual sports activities (up 2.2 percent); sports tournaments and races (up 0.7 percent); and holidays and other special events (up 0.7 percent).
Schools respondents were much less likely than others to report that they have plans to add programs at their facilities over the next three years. Some 15.3 percent of schools respondents said they had such plans, compared with 33.9 percent of non-schools respondents. This also represents a slight decline from 2014, when 17.5 percent of schools had plans to add programs.
The top planned programs among schools respondents include:
- Youth sports teams (up from No. 3)
- Fitness programs (down from No. 1)
- Educational programs (down from No. 2)
- Sports tournaments and races (no change from 2014)
- Sport-specific training (no change from 2014)
- Day camps and summer camps (did not appear in 2014)
- Special needs programs (up from No. 10)
- Teen programming (did not appear in 2014)
- Adult sports teams (did not appear in 2014)
- Individual sports activities (down from No. 6)
Programs that fell off the top 10 list from 2014 include swimming programs, holidays and other special events, and mind-body balance programs.
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